?The fortieth anniversary of ?Pacem in Terris? is an apt occasion to return to Pope John XXIII?s prophetic teaching. Not only is it clear that his vision of an effective international public authority at the service of human rights, freedom and peace has not yet been entirely achieved, but there is still in fact much hesitation in the international community about the obligation to respect and implement human rights. This duty touches all fundamental rights, excluding that arbitrary picking and choosing which can lead to rationalising forms of discrimination and injustice. Likewise, we are witnessing the emergence of an alarming gap between a series of new ?rights? being promoted in advanced societies — the result of new prosperity and new technologies — and other more basic human rights still not being met, especially in situations of underdevelopment.?